Lesson 26: Prepositions

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Lesson 26 teaches prepositions.

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Leyla: Welcome to lesson 26, we're so glad you've joined us!

Matt: As always, remember that bonus materials, as well as all of our previous lessons can be found on our website at www.chaiandconversation.com, with CHAI spelled C-H-A-I.

Leyla: And with that, are you ready to begin the lesson Matt?

Matt: Ready!

Leyla: Great! Then let's begin to learn Persian with Chai and Conversation.

We're going to take a break from verbs this week, and learn some vocabulary for preposition words. As you know, preposition words allow you to talk about the location of one object in relation to another object. So these are a pretty important part of any languages vocabulary. Let's go through a few prepositional words now. The word for on is roo-ye

Rooye

In conversational speech, the ye gets dropped and the word becomes simply roo

roo

Under is zeer-e

Zeer-e

So let's say 'the book is on the table.' The word for table is 'meez'

meez

So ketab rooye meeze

Ketab rooye meeze

Again, you might also hear ketab roo meeze

Ketab roo meeze

How about the telephone is under the table. Telephon zeere meze

Telephone zeere meeze.

Ok, so on and under, rooye and zeere. Next, in is 'tooye'

tooye

Again, in conversational speech, the ye might be dropped. So too

Too

This is the case for most of these prepositional words, by the way- if they end in a vowel and therefore end in 'ye' the ye sound often gets dropped in conversation. If they end in a consonant and end in an '-e' sound, however, the 'e' sound doesn't get dropped. And really, you'll hear it both ways, sometimes with a 'ye' and sometimes not, so we're going to learn the words both ways. So again, in is 'tooye'

tooye

or 'too'

too

Outside of is beeroone

Beeroone

So let's say you want to say the telephone is in the purse. So telephon tooye keefe

Telephon tooye keefe

So obviously keef is the word for purse. Keef

keef

Or the telephone is outside of the purse. Telephone beeroone keefe

Telephone beeroone keefe

So tooye and beeroone, inside and outside. Next, in front of is 'jelo-ye'

Jelo-ye

Since jeloye ends with a 'ye', sometimes it is said as 'jelo

jelo

And behind is 'poshte'

Poshte

So let's say the chair is in front of the table. Sandalee jeloye meeze

Sandalee jeloye meeze

Or you might hear 'sandalee jelo meeze'

So how do you say the chair is behind the table?

Sandalee poshte meeze

So jeloye and poshte, in front of and behind.

Ok, so we've learned three sets of prepositions so far. Let's go over them. On is rooye

rooye

And under is zeere

In is 'tooye'

tooye

outside of is beeroone

beeroone

in front of is jeloye

jeloye

behind is poshte

poshte

So now, I want to want to ask you to make phrases out of some words you know and these prepositional phrases. You know the word for computer and for table, how do you say the computer is on the table

Computer rooye meeze

Great, computer rooye meeze. As we've said, this might be said as 'computer roo meeze' also, but Matt chose rooye instead of roo, and that's completely fine, they both mean the same thing. One thing we haven't mentioned in a while is the shortened version of 'to be'. Matt, why do we say 'meeze' instead of the word for table 'meez'?

Meeze is a combination of meez and hast.

Ok, exactly, so computer rooye meez hast, or computer rooye meeze. Now let's try combining this with something we learned in lesson 24. How would you say 'my telephone is on the table'?

Telephonam rooye meeze.

Exactly, very good. telephonam means my telephone. Telephonam rooye meeze.

Ok, let's try another one. How do you say the car is in the garage? You should already know the word for car, and the word for garage in the Persian language is simply garage

Masheen tooye garag-eh

Perfect, exactly. Masheen tooye garageh. The car is in the garage. What's another way you might hear this Matt?

Masheen too garageh.

Yep, masheen too garageh.

Ok, let's learn a few more. Above or over is 'balayeh'

Balayeh

And below or beneath is payeeneh

Payeeneh

So let's say you want to say that a bird is in the tree. You could use above to express this, as in the bird is above the tree. Parandeh balayeh derakhteh

Parandeh balayeh derakhteh.

Or the dog is below the table. Sag payeeneh meezeh.

To say 'next to' you say 'pahlooye'

Pahlooye

So to say the television is next to the couch you say 'television paylooyeh mobleh'

Television pahlooyeh mobleh.

The word for by, as in by the side of, is 'kenar-e'

kenar-e

So these two have similar meanings and can be interchangeable in a lot fo circumstnaces. So say you want to say the telephone is by the couch. You say 'telephone kenare mobleh'

Telephone kenare mobleh.

So, we've learned that 'tooye' is the word for in. There's another word for inside of that can be used as well, and that is 'dakhele'

Dakhele

this is used often when you're talking about entering spaces yourself. Like, if you want to say I'm inside the store, you say 'dakheleh maghazam

Dakheleh maghazam

To the left of is 'tarafe chap-e'

Tarafe chap-e

And to the right of is tarafe rast-e

tarafe rast-e

So to say, for example, Sara is to the right of Maryam, you say 'Sarah taraf-e rast-e Maryam-e

Sarah taraf-e rast-e Maryam-e

To say David is to the left of john, you say 'david tarafe chape Johne

David tarafe chape johne

So let's go over all of these prepositional words again. On is rooye

Rooye

Under is zeereh

Zeereh

In is tooye

out of is beeroone

beeroone

In front of is jeloye

jeloye

and behind is poshteh

poshteh

Next to is pahlooyeh

pahlooyeh

Below or beneath is payeeneh

Payeeneh

And by the side of, or beside, is kenareh

kenareh

Inside of is 'dakhele

dakhele

Another way to say in is tooyeh

Tooyeh

Above or over is balayeh

balayeh

To the left of is tarafe chape

Tarafe chape

And to the right of is tarafe raste

tarafe raste

There's one more we haven't covered and that is opposite of. Opposite of in Perisan is rooberooyeh

Rooberooyeh

Great- this lesson is a bit of a treat, because we're going to leave it at that- short and simple, with some good new vocabulary words for you to practice throughout the week. And that brings us to the end of lesson 26.

We hope you enjoyed the lesson

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We really appreciate all the feedback and support you have continued to send.

And until next time, khodahafez, from Matt

And beh omeedeh deedar from Leyla

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