Lesson 44: Subjunctive To Have and To Be

We’re continuing on with our power series, learning a good bit of grammar and words to help fill in our vocabulary. So Lessons 21 and 22 were devoted entirely to the verbs "to be" and "to have", respectively. These are both very important verbs in the language, and both happen to have special subjunctive stems, so we are going to devote this entire lesson to their subjunctive forms. Thankfully, they’re both related!


GREETINGS:

salām
hello
سَلام
chetor-ee
how are you?
چِطوری؟

Note: In Persian, as in many other languages, there is a formal and an informal way of speaking. We will be covering this in more detail in later lessons. For now, however, chetor-ee is the informal way of asking someone how they are, so it should only be used with people that you are familiar with. hālé shomā chetor-é is the formal expression for ‘how are you.’

Spelling note: In written Persian, words are not capitalized. For this reason, we do not capitalize Persian words written in phonetic English in the guides.


ANSWERS:

khoobam
I’m well
خوبَم

Pronunciation tip: kh is one of two unique sounds in the Persian language that is not used in the English language. It should be repeated daily until mastered, as it is essential to successfully speak Persian. Listen to the podcast for more information on how to make the sound.

Persian English
salām hello
chetor-ee how are you?
khoobam I’m well
merci thank you
khayli very
khayli khoobam I’m very well
khoob neestam I’m not well
man me/I
bad neestam I’m not bad
ālee great
chetor-een? how are you? (formal)
hālé shomā chetor-é? how are you? (formal)
hālet chetor-é? how are you? (informal)
khoob-ee? are you well? (informal)
mamnoonam thank you
chetor peesh meeré? how’s it going?
ché khabar? what’s the news? (what’s up?)
testeeeee

Leyla: Hello and welcome to lesson 44 of Learn Persian with Chai and Conversation. We’re so glad to have you with us!

Matt: We’re continuing on with our power series, learning a good bit of grammar and vocabulary words to help fill in our vocabulary, and we’re going to continue to do so in this lesson. So Lesson 21 and Lesson 22 of Chai and Conversation were devoted entirely to the verbs to be and to have respectively. These are both very important verbs in the language, and they both happen to have special subjunctives stems, so we are going to devote  this entire lesson to the subjunctive forms of to be and  to have. Thankfully, they’re both related, so that makes  it a bit easier. Matt, what is the infinite of to be.

Matt: Budan

Leyla: Exactly, budan. So the subjunctive stem of budan is ‘bash’

Matt: bash

Leyla: What is the infinitive form of to have?

Matt: dashtan

Leyla: Exactly dashtan. So the subjunctive stem of to have is dashteh bash

Matt: dashteh bash

Leyla: so bash and dashteh bash. So let’s hear these in example to start with. I can be happy. Man meetoonam khoshhal basham

Matt: Man meetoonam  khoshhal basham

Leyla: So, as we’ve been covering in the past two lessons, meetoonam is I can. Man meetoonam khoshhal basham

Matt: Man meetoonam  khoshhal basham

Leyla: In all the other cases we learned, the subjunctive stems of the second verbs were be. In this exception, is bash. Man meetoonam  khoshhal basham

Matt: Man meetonam  khoshhal basham

Leyla: So I want to be happy is man meekham khoshhal basham

Matt: Man meekham  khoshhal basham.

Leyla: So this is a good example to use to go through the conjugations of this verb. So one more time, I want to be happy, meekham  khoshhal basham

Matt: meekham  khoshhal basham

Leyla: you want to be happy informal, meekhay khoshhal bashee

Matt: meekhay  khoshhal bashee

Leyla: He or she wants to be happy, meekhad khoshhal basheh meekhad  Matt: khoshhal basheh

Leyla: We want to be happy, meekhaym khoshhal basheem meekhaym  Matt: khoshhal basheem

Leyla: You want to be happy, formal meekhayn  khoshhal basheen

Matt: They want to be happy, meekhan khoshhal bashan

 

Leyla: Ok, great, so now we can move on to other sentences. How about I want to be in Italy. Man meekham dar Italia basham

Matt: man meekham dar italia  basham

Leyla: Let’s make this sentence a little bit more complex by saying I want to be in Italy with you. Listen carefully with the word sentence man meekham ba to dar Italia  basham

Matt: man meekham ba to dar italia  basham

Leyla: How about, we want to be happy. Ma meekhaym khoshhal basheem

Matt: ma meekhaym khoshhal  basheem

Leyla: Great. Now let’s move on to the subjunctive form of to have. So again, the subjunctive form of to have is dashte bash

Matt: dashteh bash

Leyla: This is quite different, because it splits the word from one word to two. Dashteh  bash

Matt: dashteh bash

Leyla: So let’s say I want to have a car. Meekham masheen dashteh basham

Matt: meekham masheen dashteh  basham

Leyla: So that’s quite different. So how about if you want to ask ‘can I have a car?’ ‘meetoonam masheen dashteh basham?

Matt: Meetoonam  masheen  dashteh basham?

Leyla: Exactly. So let’s go over the conjugations of this verb with the concept of wanting to have a car. First, the sentence I want to have a car. Meekham masheen dashteh basham

Matt: meekham masheen dashteh  basham

Leyla: You want to have a car, informal. Meekhay masheen dashteh bashee

Matt: meekhay masheen dashteh  bashee

Leyla: He or she wants to have a car, meekhad masheen dashteh basheh

Matt: meekhad masheen dashteh  basheh

Leyla: We want to have a car, meekhaym masheen dashteh basheem

Matt: meekhaym  masheen  dashteh basheem

Leyla: You want to have a car, formal, meekhayn masheen dashteh basheen

Matt: meekhayn  masheen  dashteh basheen

Leyla: They want to have a car, meekhan masheen dashteh bashan

Matt: meekhan masheen dashteh  bashan

Leyla: Great! We also learned quite a few special verbs in the last lesson, and one of them was must. Do you remember what must is in Persian Matt?

Matt: Bayad

Leyla: Exactly. So how would you say ‘I have to have a car?

Matt: bayad masheen dashteh  basham

Leyla: exactly. Bayad masheen dashteh  basham Ok great, I think we get the hang of these two forms. Let’s learn a few more examples of sentences that use these verbs to test our knowledge. So here’s a good question for any language-­‐ can I have your phone number? So first, the word for phone number is shomareh telephone

Matt: shomareh telephone

Leyla: So your phone number is, of course, shomareh telephonet

Matt: shomareh telephonet

Leyla: So can I have your phone number: meetoonam shomareh  telephoneto  dashteh basham?

Matt: meetoonam shomareh telephoneto dashteh basham

Leyla: Great! Now can you figure out how to say ‘you can have my  phone number?’

Matt: meetoonee shomareh telephonamo dashteh bashee

Leyla: Exactly. How about if we want to make this a bit more polite and say ‘may I have your phone number?” the word for may is  momkene.

Matt: Momkene shomareh telephoneto dashthe basham? Exactly!

Leyla: Ok great. Now let’s see if we can learn the negative   forms of these two subjunctive verbs. First, we learned ‘I want to be happy, do you remember what that is Matt?

Matt: Meekham  khoshhal basham

Leyla: Right. So now let’s learn I don’t want to be angry. That would  be nemeekham  asabani basham

Matt: nemeekham  asabani basham

Leyla: Great. So the negative gets added to the first verb. So now let’s learn you can not be late. Late is deer.

Matt: deer

Leyla: So nemeetoonee deer bashee nemeetoonee  deer bashee. So you can not be late.

Matt: Nemeetoonee deer bashee nemeetoonee  deer bashee

Leyla: So now let’s try the negative of to have. An example of this would be he might not have a car. Momkene masheen  nadashteh basheh

Matt: Momkene  masheen  nadashteh basheh

Leyla: Or the word cover charge in Persian is voroodee

Matt: voroodee

Leyla: So shayad voroodee nadashteh basheh. What does this mean Matt?

Matt: It means maybe it doesn’t have a cover charge.

Leyla: Exactly, so maybe it’s free. Shayad voroodee nadashteh basheh

Matt: Shayad voroodee nadashteh  basheh.

Leyla: Great! Let’s go over a few more examples for practive. How would you say I can be  here.

Matt: Meetoonam  eenja basham

Leyla: Exactly. How about we could be there. meetooneem oonja basheem Matt: meetooneem  oonja basheem.

Leyla: How about we make it slightly more complicated with, we could be there tomorrow. Meetooneem farda oonja basheem

Matt: meetooneem  farda oonja basheem

 

Leyla: To make it slightly even more detailed you could say ‘meetooneem farda sobhe zood oonja basheem’. So sobhe zood means early in the morning. Sobhe zood

Matt: sobhe zood

Leyla: So what does the full sentence mean Matt? Meetooneem farda sobhe zood oonja basheem

Matt: We could be there early tomorrow morning

Leyla: Exactly. Meetooneem farda sobhe zood oonja basheem Meetooneem  Matt: farda  sobhe zood oonja basheem.

Leyla: Ok great, so we’ve gone over two very important verbs   in their subjuctive forms here, dashtan and boodan. And with that, we’ll wrap up this  lesson!

Matt: Thanks so much for joining  us!

Leyla: We’d like to take a moment this lesson to say that if you enjoy Chai and Conversation, we’d really appreciate it if you could take a moment to leave us an honest review   in iTunes

Matt: It really goes a long way in spreading the word of the podcast. Also, check out our new webpage at www.chaiandconversation, with chai spelled CHAI, and see all the new content we have to offer there.

Leyla: And until next time, khodahafez from Leyla and

Matt: beh omeedeh deedar from  Matt!